The name of Bongaigaon is the elongation of a fig and an old village named Bongaigaon alias Bong-ai-gaon situated on the southern border of the town. According to hearsay in the long past, there were plenty of wild (Bon) Cows (Gai) in the surrounding hilly and forest areas. So, the villagers assembled from time to time to drive away the wild cows to protect their crops. Thus this area was popularly known as Bon-Gai-Gaon.
The Judgeship of Bongaigaon district was created in the year of 1992 vide Govt. Notification No. JDJ.337/87/183, Dated 29/07/1992. The new court building of District & Sessions Judge, Bongaigaon was inaugurated by Mr. Justice Jasti Chelameswar, the then Chief Justice of Gauhati High Court, Guwahati on 29th Day of March 2009.
The Court of Additional District & Sessions Judge (Fast Track Court) Bongaigaon was created vide Govt. Notification No. JDJ(E)22/2001/22 dated 02/04/2001 and started functioning w.e.f. 01/06/2001. The Court of Civil Judge & Assistant Sessions Judge Bongaigaon was created vide Govt. Notification No. JDJ.129/83311 dated 19/05/1998 and started functioning w.e.f. 13/04/1999. The Court of Chief Judicial Magistrate Bongaigaon was created vide Govt. Notification No. JDJ.231/89/22 dated 02/02/1999 and started functioning w.e.f. 25/04/1999.
The Court of the Special Railway Magistrate was created vide Govt. Notification No. JDJ.(E)184/89/Pt-II/115 dated 21/11/2015 and started functioning w.e.f 26/09/2017. The SDJM (S), Bongaigaon acts as Special Railway Magistra of the districts in and around Bongaigaon i.e. Barpeta, Goalpara, Dhubri, Chirang, Baksa, Kokrajhar, in addition to his / her own duties.
Bongaigaon district judiciary has only one Sub-Division namely North Salmara with headquarter at Abhayapuri. The Court of Sub-Divisional Judicial Magistrate (Mufasil) at North Salmara, Abhayapuri was established on 24/04/1987 and the Court of Munsiff at North Salmara, Abhayapuri was established on 23/07/1988.
Before creation of the Chirang District Court, Bongaigaon has another Sub-Divisional Court namely Bijni with headquarter at Bijni. The Court of Sub-Divisional Judicial Magistrate (Mufasil) at Bijni and the Court of Munsiff at Bijni were established on 11/04/1997. After creation of the Chirang District Court, Bijni Sub-Division comes under the Chirang District Court.
District & Sessions Judge is the head of the Bongaigaon District Judiciary. He acts as Judge-in-Charge of the District Court complex, Bongaigaon also. He is the president of the District Forum and member of the Motor Accident Claim Tribunal and Lok Adalat also.